In order to understand how climate models work, firstly it is important to conceptualize the understanding of climate. Hence, climate is a long-term pattern of a specific area of the globe. It takes into account the climate system components such as atmosphere, oceans, the terrestrial and marine biospheres, the cryosphere (consisting of sea ice, seasonal snow cover, mountain glaciers and continental ice sheets) and land surface. Also, it is measured by relating variables regarding to temperature, humidity wind, precipitation, atmospheric pressure, atmospheric particle count over a long period of time.
For better understanding of climate itself, it is important to clarify what are the roles of these climate system components. They influence the climate in global and regional scales influencing the composition of the atmosphere, modifying surface properties and specially spreading the heat from one part of the globe to another. Heats are redistributed by the influence of ocean currents and also atmospheric motions.
Furthermore, a region's climate is influenced by the location's latitude, terrain, altitude together with water bodies and currents. Since a climate is the average of the location's aforementioned variables, most commonly precipitation and temperature, when changes of these variables are noticed, concerns regarding the consequences become current. These concerns may appear in thematics, like climate change and global warming.